efficient wind farm thanks to wind turbine coating

Wind turbine coating protects the valuable assets

Singapore is a country globally known for its commitment to greener future; also in terms of energy generation. Wind energy is not yet widely relied on, but the start has been made. In 2017 the country’s first long span wind turbine was installed in Semakau Landfill; at its maximum the turbine can power 45 four room HDB units per year. Due to the commitment to green energy, the number of wind turbines is expected to grow the coming years. This also means that these valuable assets must be appropriately protected from the harsh conditions wind turbines face daily. Wind turbine coating protects against the erosion and corrosion of the structure. It increases the wind turbine’s strength, lifespan, reliability, and durability.

In this article we look at the coating solutions for wind turbines both onshore and offshore, and the companies and their products on the Singaporean market.

The 3 challenges faced by a wind turbine coating

Wind turbines harness the energy of the wind to create electricity. This means that they need to be built in places where wind is abundant, strong, and enduring. The windiest places on earth are also some of the most inhospitable and harshest environments. Wind turbine coatings need to work against the challenges wrought by the combination of environment and use. Some of the big challenges facing wind turbine coating are:

  1. High maintenance costs – Damage from rain and sand can reduce a turbine’s energy output by 20% a year. A turbine may be in continuous operation for 15 years and the wind turbine coatings need to provide around the clock protection.  The scale and location of these structures makes maintenance and accessibility a highly expensive task. The best coatings aim to be maintenance free for their lifetime.
  2. Leading edge erosion – The front edge of a wind turbine rotor blade is subject to constant impact from airborne projectiles such as rain, salt, or sand. The blade tip on a large turbine can reach speeds of 80 m/s as it rotates, and pitting, delamination, and cosmetic failures form, compromising the blade’s integrity and developing into total blade failure. This ‘leading edge erosion’ is one of the biggest issues facing wind turbine coatings.
  3. Corrosion – In the highly corrosive environments necessary for the most effective wind turbines, corrosion is a big problem. Sub-sea structures, splash zones, and the salt spray in the wind itself all present difficulties for the stability and strength of a wind turbine. A wind turbine coating needs to provide the highest degree of corrosion protection.

Different types of wind turbine coatings depending on the application

Both onshore and offshore wind turbines need coatings to ensure their optimum performance for their service life with the minimum of maintenance. Wind turbine coatings are applied to components including blades, towers, nacelles, foundations, and equipment. Like any coating the environmental conditions, service life, required durability, use, and substrate all need to be carefully chosen for to ensure the best outcome and performance. To that end, there are a variety of coating technologies available for the protection of wind turbines:

1. Polymer coatings

The Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) of wind turbines have a range of coating technologies and methods to choose from. Commonly used polymer coatings are epoxy, polyurethane, acrylic, and fluoropolymer solutions. These coatings are applied either in a factory or in situ, depending on the relevant restrictions. Polymer coatings are chosen for their high performance properties: corrosion resistance, durability, chemical resistance, smooth finish, and toughness. Fluoropolymers have the added benefit of dirt resistance and to combat biofouling at the turbine base.

Polymer coatings are commonly applied as layered systems, rather than single coats. In this way the different properties of the coatings can protect other layers as well as the turbine, strengthening the protective system. Recent developments in the wind turbine coating industry include paint systems requiring fewer layers in order to reduce production time and cost. A common 3-coat system uses epoxy as the base coats and polyurethane as the top coat, using polyurethane’s UV resistance to protect the less resistant epoxy.

Example: a 3-coat system by Hempel – Hempadur Avantguard (a two-component, zinc epoxy) as primer, Hempadur Mastic 4588W (a two-component, high build epoxy) as the intermediate coat, and Hempathane HS 55610 (a two-component polyurethane) as the top coat. 

2. Ceramic coatings

Protection of the structure of the wind turbine is vitally important, but the mechanisms also need protection from corrosion and from the wear of constant use. Rotating machinery such as bearings needs wind turbine coating to increase their lifetime while decreasing maintenance costs. Ceramic coatings are inorganic coatings including aluminium oxide, aluminium titania, chromium oxide, and more. These coatings are hard, low friction, abrasion and wear resistant, anti-galling, corrosion resistant, heat resistant, and durable.

Ceramic coatings are also finding applications with the blades of wind turbines. This is in part because ceramic coatings have a greater abrasion resistance than polymer coatings, an important factor in combating leading edge erosion and preventing the constant impact of projectiles from damaging the blade.

3. Metal coatings

As well as zinc-rich epoxy coatings, wind turbines are often coated with metal coatings – non-ferrous metals such as zinc, aluminium, and its alloys. These metal coatings are applied through a variety of methods, including hot dip galvanising, electroplating, thermal spraying, and diffusion. Structural pieces undergo galvanising and spraying, where smaller pieces use electroplating, diffusion and galvanising.

In particularly corrosive environments (C5-M zones such as marine, coastal or high salinity areas), a duplex system is often used to protect turbines. A duplex system is the combination of a metal coating base layer and a polymer paint system, commonly used for offshore wind turbines. Even if the polymer coating fails or is damaged, the structure is still protected by the metal coating through both galvanic and barrier action. The duplex system is considered the toughest for offshore conditions.

Example: Typical duplex system : The untreated steel is first coated with zinc through hot dip galvanising, then a two- or three-coat polymer coating system is applied on top. This may be two layers of epoxy formulations or a three layer system like the one outlined above.


Coating for wind turbine rotor blades & application

Wind turbine coating on a white wind mill

In mould and post mould applications of wind turbine coating are done for the fibreglass rotor blades.

Wind turbine blades are made from aluminium, wood, or a fibreglass-resin composite (for those blades too large for wood or aluminium). Coatings can be applied with spray, roll or brush to rotor blades made from aluminium or wood, but there are two different methods for coating a fibreglass-resin composite blade: in-mould and post-mould application.

A moulded rotor blade is formed as two separately moulded halves, which are then joined. An in-mould coating application means the mould is produced with a gelcoat, the benefit of this being that a polyurethane gelcoat is easier to work with in the final surface preparation than a fibreglass substrate. Post-mould application is the application of coatings after the blade has been formed. Where in-mould coating is important for the performance of the entire blade, post-mould coating is focused on protecting the leading edge.

In-mould coatings use a similar resin to that used for the mould – epoxy or polyurethane, for example – and by incorporating part of the coating process in the blade formation it cuts down on the time and cost of coating. Post-mould coatings are also often epoxy or polyurethane based, with polyurethane as the final protective topcoat in a multi-layer system.


Wind turbine coating availability in Singapore

The global growth of the wind energy sector has seen a corresponding rise in the number of coating companies catering to wind turbine coating industry. The industry is currently dominated by a few big companies, with many smaller companies jockeying for position. The top players are AkzoNobel, Hempel, PPG, Jotun, Aeolus, Teknos, and Sherwin-Williams. The Hempel coatings protect some 50% of the onshore and offshore towers around the globe.

There are a vast range of wind turbine coatings available in Singapore. It is important to consult with coatings experts when choosing any protective coating or coating system in order to ensure the best performance of both the coating and your asset. The cost of coating onshore structures ranges from $30-40 per m2 (depending on coating, method and other variables), but repair work costs more. For offshore structures, on-site repair work can cost up to 50 times more than the initial application cost. Below is a table outlining a few of the wind turbine coating products available.

If you would like advice about wind turbine coatings, or are looking for a coating for your project, get in touch! Our experts are here to help. In cooperation with our coating partners, we will connect you with the coating solution for your needs.

Coating Company/BrandWind Turbine Coating ProductDescription
AkzoNobelIntershield 300A two component, abrasion resistant aluminium-pigmented pure epoxy coating providing excellent long term anticorrosive protection for offshore structures.
HempelHempadur Avantguard 750A two-component, activated zinc epoxy primer for long-term protection of steel in severely corrosive environments.
JotunJotamastic 87A two component epoxy-mastic for repair and maintenance. Anticorrosive coating for a range of substrates.
PPG IndustriesSelemixA polyurethane topcoat for turbine blades to protect from erosion.

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